InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically


Table of Contents:

GS Paper 1:

1. Vijay Diwas – Bangladesh Liberation War


GS Paper 2:

1. Court vacations: What are the arguments for and against judges taking breaks?

2. What is the law on acid attacks in India?


GS Paper 3:

1. India’s first 5G-enabled auto manufacturing unit


Content for Mains Enrichment

1. Ikki Jathre

2. Free bus service


Facts for Prelims

1. Sanskrit problem in Panini’s ‘Ashtadhyayi’

2. Kashi-Tamil Sangamam

3. Operationalising Unified Health Interface (UHI)

4. Group of Friends

5. First global water survey satellite

6. Water worlds detected

7. DNA fingerprinting to solve the crime

8. Doxxing

9. Agni-V

10. Mapping



Vijay Diwas – Bangladesh Liberation War

GS Paper 1


Source: Indian Express

 Context: Vijay Diwas or Victory Day is commemorated on December 16, marking the end of the 1971 Indo-Pak War and the liberation of Bangladesh. India declared victory on this day 51 years ago after Pakistan signed the Instrument of Surrender.

 What led to the 1971 Indo-Pak War?

After the partition of India following the end of British rule in 1947, two independent countries were formed – India and Pakistan. The latter consisted of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) and West Pakistan (present-day Pakistan).

 Issues within Pakistan:

  • Geographical disconnect between them.
  • Cultural conflict. For instance, when Urdu, used in West Pakistan, was made the official language of the country, it was seen as an imposition on the culture of the people in the East (Bengali-speaking majority).

 Background of the war:

  • In the first-ever free and fair elections in Pakistan in 1970, Awami League, led by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman from East Pakistan came to power. However, Military General Yahya Khan did not accept the result and started “Operation Searchlight”, committing genocide to cleanse the land of Bengali and Hindu populations and political distracters.
  • China gave its support to Pakistan against India, while the US believed a victory for India would be considered an expansion of Soviet hegemony in South Asia.
  • In the background of large-scale genocide, looming refugee crisis, and threat to internal security. India felt strategically isolated. Therefore, India and the Soviet Union inked the Indo-Soviet Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Cooperation to neutralize the emerging US-China–Pakistan axis and defend their vital geopolitical interests.


India’s role in the 1971 War

  • Launched Operation Jackpot, an operation to recruit, train, arm, equip, supply and advise Mukti Bahini fighters engaged in guerrilla warfare against the Pakistan military.
  • When the Pakistan Air Force launched pre-emptive strikes towards Western India (including Amritsar, Pathankot, Srinagar, Avantipura, Ambala, Sirsa and Agra), India formally declared war on December
  • An important figure in this war was India’s Field Marshal Sam Manekshaw, who is often evoked in relation to it. His planning and strategy helped secure one of the quickest victories in recent military history.


Shimla Agreement:

  • The Agreement was a peace treaty signed between India and Pakistan on 2 July 1972 in Shimla, the capital city of the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh
  • The agreement converted the cease-fire line of 17 December 1971 into the Line of Control (LOC) between India and Pakistan and it was agreed that “neither side shall seek to alter it unilaterally, irrespective of mutual differences and legal interpretations”.


Insta Curious:

Don’t get confused with Shimla Convention:

The Simla Convention, officially the Convention Between Great Britain, China, and Tibet, was ambiguous concerning the status of Tibet negotiated by representatives of the Republic of China, Tibet and Great Britain in Simla in 1913 and 1914.


Insta Links:

Vijay Diwas 2020

Mains Link: UPSC 2013

Q. Critically examine the compulsions which prompted India to play a decisive role in the emergence of Bangladesh.

Court vacations: What are the arguments for and against judges taking breaks?

GS Paper 2

Syllabus: Structure, Organization and Functioning of the Judiciary


Source: IE

 Direction: The article covers the issue of vacations in SC, its need, criticism, suggestions to reform the system and how SCs of other countries perform.

 Context: The Chief Justice of India (CJI) recently said that no Vacation Benches will be available in the SC during the winter break.


  • The announcement came a day after the Union Law Minister criticised the long vacations of the court and the inconvenience it caused to litigants.
  • According to an SC’s earlier circular, a senior SC Registry official is specially deputed as a ‘Vacation Officer,’ who could be approached in matters seeking urgent relief and in such instances, a Bench would be constituted if required.

What are court vacations?

  • The SC has 193 working days a year for its judicial functioning, while the HCs function for approximately 210 days and trial courts for 245 days.
  • The SC breaks for its annual summer vacation which is typically for seven weeks (May-July), a week-long break each for Dussehra and Diwali and two weeks at the end of December.

The fate of the important cases during court vacations:

  • The Supreme Court Rules, 2013, provides that the CJI may appoint one or more Judges to hear during vacation (vacation benches) all matters of an urgent nature (bail, eviction, etc) and s/he may likewise appoint a Division Court for the hearing of urgent cases.
  • For example, in 2015, a five-judge Bench of the SC heard the challenge to the constitutional amendment setting up the NJAC during the summer vacation.

Criticism of the court vacations:

  • The colonial origins: the European judges of the Federal Court of India found Indian summers too hot and took the winter break for Christmas.
  • Mounting pendency of cases: the court’s pendency as on December 1 is 69,598
  • The calendar for the year 2023 shows the court would not be fully functional for nearly 180 days.

Arguments in favour of court vacations:

  • The judges do not take leave of absence (family tragedies, and health are rare exceptions) like other working professionals when the court is in session.
  • In a profession that demands intellectual rigour and long working hours, vacations are needed for rejuvenation.
  • The judges utilise the vacation to write judgments.
  • Cutting the vacation period would be a solution to pendency that is not backed by data.
  • The issue of pendency relates largely to legacy cases that need to be tackled systemically.


Reforms were undertaken: In 2014 when the SC reduced the period of summer vacation from 10 to 7 weeks.


  • The Justice Malimath Committee: vacation period should be reduced by 21 days and the SC work for 206 days and HCs for 231 days every year.
  • The Law Commission of India: Vacations in the higher judiciary are to be curtailed by at least 10 to 15 days and the working hours should be extended by at least half an hour.
  • Former CJI R M Lodha:
    • Keep the SC, HCs and trial courts open around the year.
    • The schedules of individual judges should be sought at the beginning of the year, and the calendar should be planned accordingly.

Compared with other countries:

  • Indian SC: It has the highest caseload among the apex courts around the world and also works the most. For example, with 34 judges in 2021, 29,739 cases came before the SC and 24,586 cases were disposed of in the same year.
  • US SC: Hears approximately 100-150 cases a year, and sits for oral arguments for five days a month.
  • In the UK, High Courts and Courts of Appeals sit for 185-190 days a year.


Insta Links:

Reforms brought by CJI Lalit in SC

What is the law on acid attacks in India?

GS Paper 2

Syllabus: Mechanisms, Laws, Institutions and Bodies constituted for the Protection and Betterment of these Vulnerable Sections


Source: IE

 Direction: The article discusses the heinous crime of acid attacks and success and shortcomings of laws to prevent them and the way ahead

 Context: A 17-year-old girl was recently attacked with an acid-like substance in Delhi while she was on her way to school.


  • According to National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) data, there were 150 such cases recorded in 2019, 105 in 2020 and 102 in 2021.
  • West Bengal and UP generally account for nearly 50% of all cases in the country year on year.
  • The charge sheeting rate of acid attacks stood at 89% and the conviction rate at 20% in 2021.
  • In 2015, the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) issued an advisory to all states to ensure speedy justice in cases of acid attacks by expediting prosecution.


The law on acid attacks:

  • Until 2013, acid attacks were not treated as separate crimes.
  • However, acid attacks were put under a separate section (326A) of the IPC and made punishable with a minimum imprisonment of 10 years which is extendable to life along with a fine.
  • The law also has provisions for punishment for denial of treatment to victims or police officers refusing to register an FIR.
  • Denial of treatment can lead to imprisonment of up to one year and dereliction of duty by a police officer is punishable by imprisonment of up to two years.


The law on the regulation of acid sales:

  • In 2013, the SC took cognizance of acid attacks and passed an order on the regulation of sales of corrosive substances.
  • As a result, the MHA issued an advisory to all states on how to regulate acid sales and framed the Model Poisons Possession and Sale Rules, 2013 under The Poisons Act, 1919.
  • According to the MHA’s directions and the model rules,
    • Over-the-counter sale of acid is not allowed unless the seller maintains a logbook/register.
    • The sale is also to be made only when the buyer produces a photo ID, to prove that s/he is above 18 years of age.
    • Sellers are also required to declare all stocks of acid with the concerned SDM and the SDM can confiscate the stock and impose a fine of Rs 50,000 for a breach of directions.
    • Educational institutions, research laboratories, hospitals, etc, are required to keep and store acid, to maintain a register of usage of acid.
  • The MHA asked states to frame their own rules based on model rules, as the matter fell under the purview of states.


Victim compensation and care:

  • Based on SC directions, the MHA asked states –
    • To make sure acid attack victims are paid compensation of at least Rs. 3 lakhs (Rs 1 lakh within 15 days and Rs 2 lakh within 2 months thereafter) by the concerned State Government/UT.
    • To provide free treatment to acid attack victims in any hospital, public or private.
    • To earmark 1-2 beds in private hospitals for the treatment of underprivileged victims of acid attacks.
    • To extend social integration programs to the victims for which NGOs could be funded to look after their rehabilitative requirements.


How did the above help in prevention?

  • The regulations on acid sales largely help in tracking the accused and not so much in prevention.
  • Social attitudes are changing and the focus of the police in dealing with crimes against women is expected to cause deterrence.

Shortcomings: The implementation of the regulations is not very strict and acid is still easily available in many places.

The Shakti Criminal Laws (Maharashtra Amendment) Act, 2021:

  • In cases of acid attacks, the punishment has been enhanced to a minimum of 15 years and extended to the remainder of the natural life of the perpetrator along with a fine.
  • The bail-in cases of acid attacks, rape and gang rape can be decided only by the sessions court and higher courts.
  • Grant of anticipatory bail in such cases has also been prohibited.

Conclusion: These are crimes of passion and in a majority of cases the accused is not even thinking about the consequences. So, the key to solving this problem will always remain in societal awareness.

Sheroes Café: It is a cafe and community in India, set up by the Chhanv Foundation and run by survivors of acid attacks. The cafe aims to increase awareness of acid attacks and empower acid attack survivors.

Following the attacks, some women rarely went outside, in part due to the shame attached to their physical appearance. Some women endured multiple surgeries, and they often struggled to find employment. Furthermore, they sometimes dealt with family or community pressure to stay silent on their attacks. Sheroes Hangout granted women a place to find acceptance, community, and a means of income.


Insta Links:

HC seeks govt. stand on plea to ban the acid sale

India’s first 5G-enabled auto manufacturing unit

GS Paper 3

Source: Indian Express


Context: Bharti Airtel and Tech Mahindra have announced a strategic partnership under which they have deployed a “5G for Enterprise” Solution i.e., a ‘captive private network’ at Mahindra and Mahindra’s Chakan facility in Maharashtra, making it India’s first 5G- enabled auto manufacturing unit.

  • The partnership is in line with Tech Mahindra’s NXT.NOWTM framework, which aims to enhance the “Human Centric Experience”, focuses on investing in emerging technologies and solutions that enable digital transformation and meet the evolving needs of the customer.
  • As the industry 4.0 paradigm gathers momentum, reliable data networks will prove to be a key differentiator in factory and manufacturing performances.


About 5G:

  • The fifth generation of mobile networks, or 5G, is what comes after the 2G, 3G, and 4G generations. 5G is expected to deliver substantially higher connection speeds.


About private 5G network:

  • Also called a captive non-public network (CNPN), it is a network that is set up solely for a firm’s own use. Unlike a public network, it is closed to external communication.
  • The network relies on high-frequency, low-wavelength airwaves and is therefore ideal for institutions like factories, manufacturing plants, hospitals, universities etc.


Significance of the move:

  • Airtel and Tech Mahindra’s partnership shows the opportunity for collaboration between telcos and private enterprises.


How will the private 5G network work at the Chakan plant?

  • Improved speeds for software flashing – a critical operation for all vehicular dispatches – and allow managers to undertake multiple software flashing sessions in parallel, thereby reducing the turn-around time for an operation.


Difference between 4G and 5G:

  5G 4G
Frequency Uses utilise much higher radio frequencies of 28 GHz. Uses lower reading frequencies of 700 MHz to 2500 MHz.
Speed Transfer more data over the air at faster speeds. Speed is lesser with less data transfer.
  Data transfer speed is up to 1 Gbps Supports data bandwidth in Mbps
Latency Has ultra-reliable low latency (ranging between 10 milliseconds and 1 millisecond) i.e., the delay before a transfer of data begins following an instruction. Has higher latency (20-30 milliseconds)
Spectrum &


Uses a millimetre wave spectrum which enables more devices to be used within the same geographic area supporting around one million per square kilometre. Support a lesser number of devices of about 4,000 devices per square kilometre.
Coverage Uses a new digital technology that improves coverage, speed and capacity. Has led to more congestion and lesser coverage as compared to 5G.
Other Advantages Has added advantages for machine learning, robotics, IoT and other programming modules. It can provide faster processing of data. Limited


Opportunities of using 5G:

  • High-speed and Digital India
  • Better Governance: Better speed and connectivity would reduce red-tapism
  • Employment generation: 5G will open greater opportunities for new device manufacturers and application developers.
  • Enhanced coverage: Device-to-device communication techniques will further enhance network performance.
  • Reduced digital gap: small cell concept used in 5G will have multiple advantages of better cell coverage, maximum data transfer, low power consumption and cloud access network etc.
  • Entertainment and multimedia industry: Analysts found that 55% of mobile Internet traffic has been used for video downloads globally in 2015.
  • Enhanced Security: 5G wireless technology is one the best solution for security surveillance due to higher bandwidth and unlicensed spectrum.
  • Logistics and Shipping: Logistic and shipping industry can make use of smart 5G technology for goods tracking, fleet management etc.
  • Boost Smart cities
  • Industrial Growth
  • Agricultural applications: 5g technology can be used for agriculture and smart farming in future. Using smart RFID sensors and GPS technology.
  • Healthcare and mission-critical applications
  • Education


Challenges for India:

  • Indian operators have far less spectrum in comparison to international operators.
  • Indian spectrum is also rather expensive.
  • The high investment cost makes telecom companies unsure about Return on Investment.
  • The switch from 4G to 5G will be infrastructure intensive and the development of infrastructure for 5G is very expensive.
  • The transition experience from one technology generation to another is not very good as one has to buy a whole new phone to start using the latest cellular technology, thereby creating financial liability.


Insta Links:

5G Technology


Mains Link:

Q. Discuss the benefits of 5G technology, its potential and challenges for implementation on a large scale in India.


Content for Mains Enrichment

Direction:  The example can be used in Essay/ Agriculture/ Environment/ Social Justice questions.

Ikki Jathre (or the Festival of Rice)

 Context: Wayanad rice festival promotes climate-resilient crops

Aim: The initiative aims to sensitise people to the significance of conserving traditional crops that have the ability to withstand harsh climatic conditions.


  • A Kerala-based organisation named Thanal has embarked on a unique conservation experiment, planting 300 climate-resilient varieties of traditional rice on 1.5 acres of land at its agroecology centre in Panavally in the Wayanad district.
    • Thanal has been organising annual “rice field weeks” since 2012
  • Knowledge sharing and co-creation of knowledge between tribal farmers and experts e.g. Rice Diversity Block (RDB) were launched (under the Save our Rice campaign, 2009) to collect traditional varieties of rice.

India had nearly 1.5 lakh varieties of rice. But only 6,000 varieties are currently being cultivated by the farmers in the country.

Free bus service

 Context: US capital Washington DC has become the largest U.S. city to announce plans for permanent free bus service along all routes, citing a desire to increase ridership.

  • The $2 bus fare will be waived starting July 1, 2023.


Other cities having implemented similar programmes: Kansas City, Missouri, launched its permanent ZeroFare program in March 2020; Worcester, Massachusetts, and Alexandria, Virginia, (a D.C. suburb) also top the list of cities that have waived bus fees

Similar examples in India:

  • TN: Smart Identity Cards to police personnel up to the rank of Inspector of Police to enable free travel in State-owned buses
  • Delhi: Women commuters in Delhi can choose to pay or not pay for their rides on state buses. Women who avail of the scheme will be handed specially designed tickets that will be pink in colour.


  • Offer affordable, green-friendly public travel
  • A decrease in delays because riders can enter and exit buses without stopping to pay
  • Riders with the lowest incomes stand to benefit


  • High cost to taxpayers
  • Concerns about safety issues due to increased ridership


Facts for Prelims

Sanskrit problem in Panini’s ‘Ashtadhyayi’

Source: Indian Express

Context: In his PhD thesis, Cambridge scholar Dr Rishi Rajpopat claims to have solved Sanskrit’s biggest puzzle—a grammar problem found in the ‘Ashtadhyayi’, (an ancient text written by the scholar Panini in the 4th century BC)

  • Significance: Experts are calling the discovery revolutionary, as it may allow Panini’s grammar to be taught to computers for the first time.



Kashi-Tamil Sangamam

Source: Indian Express, The Hindu

 Direction: The FFP is a combination of many articles and editorials in Hindu and Indian Express in the past few days

 Context: One long-month programme got over


 Other Cultural Significance of the Sangamam:

  • Kashi Tamil Sangamam’ is an attempt to bring a cultural renaissance that will unite the country and connect different languages
  • Kashi is the cultural capital of India whereas Tamil Nadu and Tamil culture are at the centre of India’s antiquity and glory
  • “Kashi-Kanchi” in the “Sapta Puris” (the seven holy pilgrimage sites in Hinduism), he takes us on a journey from Baba Vishwanath Dham in Kashi to Lord Rameshwaram in Tamil Nadu
  • Connection: Both Kashi and Tamil Nadu are the birthplaces and ‘karma bhoomi’ (workplace) of the greatest acharyas of Indian spirituality. Kashi is the land of devotees of Tulsi, while Tamil Nadu is the land of Saint Thiruvalluvar
  • The Kashi-Tamil Sangamam has also helped to bring the Hindi and Tamil-speaking people closer.
  • Unity in Diversity: Kashi-Tamil Sangamam signifies that we might speak different languages, and follow different cultures and traditions, but we all are Indians.

Other linkages: Kutch- Tamil Linkages: It is said that hundreds of years ago a large population from the Kutch-Saurashtra region migrated to Tamil Nadu. Today, a large number of Gujarati-origin people live in Madurai and other parts of Tamil Nadu.


Good quotes (can be used in Essay/Arts & Culture) :

Kaniyan Poongundranar (a great poet of India, 3000 years ago) wrote in Tamil, “Yaadhum oorae, yaavarum kaeleer’”(we belong to all places, and we belong to everyone). This sense of belonging beyond borders is unique to India”

“Panch Pran” (five pledges) of Amrit Kaal

  • Making a developed India
  • Removing the colonial mindset
  • Taking pride in our roots
  • Taking pride in our unity
  • Inculcating a sense of duty among citizens


Operationalising Unified Health Interface (UHI)

Source: Live Mint

Context: The National Health Authority (NHA) released a consultation paper on ‘Operationalising Unified Health Interface (UHI) in India’ that outlines market rules that will govern the UHI Network.

UHI is envisioned as a foundational layer of the Ayushman Bharat Digital Mission (ABDM) and aims to enable interoperability in health services in India through open protocols.


Group of Friends

Source: The Hindu

Context: India, Bangladesh, Egypt, Morocco and Nepal will co-chair the ‘Group of Friends’ to promote accountability for crimes against peacekeepers.

  • India will soon launch a database that will record all crimes against the Blue Helmets 


What is UN Peacekeeping?

Peacekeeping by the United Nations is a role held by the Department of Peace Operations as an “instrument developed by the organization as a way to help countries torn by conflict to create the conditions for lasting peace”

Issues with UN Peacekeeping?

  • Peace operations are also being conducted in an ambiguous and complex environment
  • Today’s peacekeeper is not mandated to keep the peace but to take on robust mandates in extremely hostile conflict zones.
  • The involvement of armed groups, terrorists and transnational organised crime has adversely impacted their operations,
  • There have been scandals where the UN missions appear to have not done enough on corruption.
  • UN military peacekeepers have not acted to protect civilians from violence, such as in South Sudan.


UN Resolution 2589 calls upon the member states to take all appropriate measures against perpetrators of violence against UN personnel

India has a long history of service in UN Peacekeeping, having contributed more personnel than any other country. To date, more than 2,53,000 Indians have served in 49 of the 71 UN Peacekeeping missions established around the world since 1948.

In April this year, about 1,160 Indian peacekeepers currently serving in Upper Nile State were honoured with UN medals “for their outstanding and multifaceted work”


Water worlds detected

Source: Live Mint

Context: According to a new study two alien planets, about 218 light years away from Earth have found a twin in the ocean worlds of Europa and Enceladus — moons orbiting Jupiter and Saturn.

According to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), these exoplanets were found in the constellation Lyra.

 Key Findings:

  • The exoplanets, Kepler-138 c and Kepler-138 d, are likely water worlds — a feature that scientists have theorized for a long time.
  • The volume of the two alien worlds was three times that of Earth and mass twice as big.
  • The Kepler- 138 c and d are made up of ingredients lighter than rock (rocky planets like Earth) but heavier than hydrogen or helium (gas-giant planets like Jupiter).
  • The new planet takes 38 days to complete an orbit. It is in the habitable zone (meaning it is located in an orbit that receives just the right amount of heat from its star to allow water to exist in a liquid form).


First global water survey satellite

Source: The Hindu

Context: NASA to conduct the first global survey of Earth’s surface waters, shedding new light on the mechanics and consequences of climate change.

The Surface Water and Ocean Topography satellite, or SWOT, incorporates advanced microwave radar technology to collect high-definition measurements of oceans, lakes, reservoirs and rivers over 90% of the globe.

The data, compiled from radar sweeps of the planet at least twice every 21 days, will be used to enhance ocean-circulation models, bolster weather and climate forecasts and aid in managing scarce freshwater supplies in drought-stricken regions,


DNA fingerprinting to solve the crime

Source: Indian Express

Context: Last month, Delhi Police recovered bones from the Mehrauli forest area in connection with the Shraddha Walkar murder investigation. DNA testing conducted on the bones — parts of the jaw, pelvis and lower limb — has now confirmed a positive match with Shraddha’s father.

 The origin of DNA fingerprinting

It was first developed in 1984 by Alec Jeffreys in the UK after Jeffreys discovered that no two people could have the same DNA sequence.

 How is DNA fingerprinting done?

DNA can be extracted from many sources, such as hair, bone, teeth, saliva, and blood. As there is DNA in most cells in the human body, even a minuscule amount of bodily fluid or tissue can yield useful information. Samples may even be extracted from used clothes, linen, combs, or other frequently used items.


DNA fingerprinting in India

Lalji Singh, who had been in the UK from 1974 to 1987 on a Commonwealth Fellowship, developed DNA fingerprinting for crime investigations at the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) in Hyderabad.

Some famous investigations where DNA fingerprinting was used

  • Shiney Ahuja rape case.
  • Establishing the identity of the suicide bomber who killed Rajiv Gandhi.
  • Sheena Bora murder case



 Source: Indian Express

 Context: Twitter has suspended the account of several journalists in the United States, and according to its owner Elon Musk, this was in continuation of the social media platform’s new anti-doxxing policy.

 What is doxxing and what is Twitter’s new policy around it?

  • Doxxing is the revealing of someone’s intimate information with harassment as the intent. It is a popular and controversial tactic used against those with opposing political views. Even celebrities and influencers have been doxxed with real-life consequences.
  • Twitter’s policy now includes sharing the live location of any individual as a possible “serious safety and security risk,” and this is not allowed (neglected in the older version).
  • According to the policy, violation of these can result in the account getting locked and continued violations can result in a permanent suspension. But sharing anyone’s live location without express permission will lead to an automatic suspension, which is what happened with the journalists.



Source: Indian Express

Context: The Strategic Forces Command (SFC), which operates the Agni-5, carried out the test from A P J Abdul Kalam Island off the coast of Odisha.

  • Agni-5 was earlier tested last year in October by the SFC independently for the first time, a few months after China had tested its hypersonic missile
  • Developed by DRDO under its Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP)
  • Significance of the test: It supports India’s nuclear doctrine and spearheads India’s nuclear triad.

  • SFC is a tri-services formation (including Army, Navy and Air Force) under Nuclear Command Authority (NCA) that manages and administers all the strategic assets in India
  • NCA councils are headed by the PM (Political council) and National Security advisor (executive council)



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