The G20 also invites non-member countries, including Bangladesh, Singapore, Spain and Nigeria, besides international organisations such as the United Nations, World Health Organization, the World Bank and the IMF.
WHAT DOES G20 PRESIDENCY ENTAIL?
The G20 does not have a permanent secretariat, and one member takes over the presidency each year to steer the grouping’s agenda that is split into two tracks – one led by finance ministers and another by emissaries of leaders of member countries.
After India, Brazil will take over the presidency of the G20, followed by South Africa in 2025.
During its term, India will hold more than 200 meetings across some 50 cities involving ministers, officials and civil society, leading up to a marquee summit in the capital New Delhi in September 2023.
The summit will be attended by around 30 heads of state and government, from G20 members and invited countries.
WHAT IS G20’S UPCOMING AGENDA?
Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi has called for international cooperation to deal with global issues, outlining the country’s approach to the G20.
He said in a statement the challenges of “climate change, terrorism, and pandemics can be solved not by fighting each other, but only by acting together”.
Modi also underlined a need to “depoliticise the global supply of food, fertilizers and medical products, so that geo-political tensions do not lead to humanitarian crises”.
His statement reflects New Delhi’s stance that the conflict in Ukraine, triggered by a Russian invasion in February, must be resolved through dialogue and diplomacy.
Asked about Russia’s involvement in G20 during India’s presidency, a spokesperson for the Indian foreign ministry said that as Russia was a G20 member, “we would expect them to be participating in this process … the grouping needs to speak with one voice, particularly on important issues that are affecting the world”.
WHAT DOES THE G20 MEAN FOR INDIA AND MODI?
The timing of the summit, ahead of India’s general elections due in 2024, could help bolster Modi’s already growing reputation at home as a leader of international stature.
The 72-year-old leader also appears to have a personal rapport with many of his G20 counterparts, including US President Joe Biden and French President Emmanuel Macron.
Still, the current complex geopolitical and economic situation will make it a challenge for India and Modi to shape the international response to multiple crises.