A recent assessment led by Pakistan’s government has put the cost of recovery from the floods at more than $16 billion, based on impacts to transport and communication infrastructure, agriculture, the food supply and housing, among others.

That sum is impossible for Pakistan – with its economy already wracked by spiralling inflation – to cover on its own, said its climate change minister, Rehman.

While a national recovery plan is yet to be announced, Prime Minister Shehbaz Sharif has said the government is first focusing on getting farmers back on their feet.

This week, Sharif announced that banks would provide small-scale farmers with interest-free and subsidised loans totalling 1.8 trillion Pakistani rupees ($8.12 million), while interest on money they had borrowed before the flooding would be waived.

For Ahmad Rafay Alam, a Pakistani environmental lawyer and activist, the floods have “crystallized the voice of loss and damage” – by demonstrating both the devastating impacts of climate change and the lack of support from the West.

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